Sunday, 2 October 2016

Salween River is Being ‘Sold Off’ to China "

“While all eyes were on the Irrawaddy Myitsone dam, Burma has quietly sold off the Salween to China.”
Myanmar incurs wrath of civic groups as hydropower solutions remain its main priority
YANGON August 24, 2015 1:00 am
MYANMAR'S Electric Power Ministry will go ahead with hydropower projects, the Minister for Electric Power, Industry, Science and Technology said last week amid reports of local resistance.
Nyan Tun U told the Confexhub's Myanmar Green Energy Summit that the government would fulfil its target to achieve universal electricity access by 2030. At present, only about 30 per cent of the population has access to electricity.
"We are comprehensively and systematically working on plans for sustainability, ensuring efficient and effective use of resources while considering protection of the environment. There is a very huge potential for the green energy sector in Myanmar. However, we need more investment and transfers of know-how," he said.
The tasks have been and will be carried out by Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise, a state utility, the ministry itself, local companies and joint ventures with foreign investors, he said.
The four main river basins - Ayeyawady, Chindwin, Thanlwin (Salween) and Sittaung - offer a combined capacity of up to 100 gigawatts of hydropower.
"At present, only 3 per cent of the country's potential has been developed and 26 per cent is under implementation. Small hydroplants are expected to develop more as a proper source for electrification of small villages," he said.
There are 35 small and medium hydropower stations across the country, generally ranging from one to 10 megawatts in capacity, generating 33.18MW in total. All of them were built by the government outside the grid system in order to supply electricity to rural areas.
As part of the national electrification programme, 386 reservoirs are expected to be implemented with total storage capacity of 19.40 billion cubic metres.
The minister also underscored the importance of other potential resources - wind, solar, biomass and other types of renewable energy.
Myanmar's per capita electricity consumption is the lowest in Asean, given the low electrification rate, low industry development and lack of investment. Yangon enjoys the highest electrification ratio of 67 per cent, followed by Nay Pyi Taw at 54 per cent and Mandalay at 31 per cent. The remaining rural areas are still poorly electrified with the average ratio of 16 per cent.
Strengthening the energy sector is critical for reducing poverty and enhancing medium and long-term development prospects. Plans for universal electrification must go ahead as it is an urgent requirement for social progress including health, education and other essential services, he added.
During the conference, Min Khaing, director of the ministry's Hydropower Implementation Department, said 29 hydropower projects that are expected to produce 31.62GW have been implementing on a joint venture scheme. Three hydro projects with installed capacity of 190.4MW are being implemented on the build, operate and transfer scheme.
"Hydropower projects will be in the form of public-private partnership. We are also holding public consultations for the sustainability of the projects. At the same time, we mainly focus on capacity building by uplifting skills and motivation of our staff," he said.
Civic groups have opposed the construction of six large-scale dams on Thanlwin River. Notably, they said the Mongtong, the biggest dam on the Thanlwin River, is unlikely to take place during this government's term due to public opposition, said a community representative.
Nang Kham Mai, coordinator of Action for Shan State Rivers, said more than 6,000 villagers from several eastern Shan State townships recently blocked attempts by Australia's Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC) to conduct surveys for an environmental impact assessment and social impact assessment.
"We strongly oppose implementation of the dam as it will have huge impacts on more than 100,000 people living along the river. Even today, those living in eastern Shan State are worried about flooding. If the dam is built, our lives will be definitely at risk," she said.
According to Nang Kham Mai, in late July SMEC tried to conduct surveys in 14 villages in Mongtong Township. It could do so in only four.
SMEC field surveyors handed out cloth bags, bottled drinks and snacks to surveyed households. The bags were returned the next day with anti-dam posters.
Another issue hindering the project is the fact that SMEC can not enter the Wa Special Administrative Region. The company's representatives were in Pangshang, the capital of the region, but United Wa State Army leaders told them that the situation was too unstable and they should return in a few months to discuss the matter, said Nang Kham Mai.
Mongtong experienced fighting in June.
According to Nang Kham Nawng, coordinator of the Shan Sapawa Environmental Organisation, the area is now restricted - no one is allowed to enter it without prior permission.
Mongtong dam would encompass 640 square kilometres. More than 300,000 would be evacuated.
It would be one of the biggest dams in Southeast Asia with a height of 241 metres. It is among six dams earmarked to be built on the Thanlwin River, which covers Shan, Kayah and Kayin states.
Ninety per cent of its 7,000 megawatts capacity would be sold to China and Thailand while the remaining 10 per cent is set for domestic use.
Due to its gigantic size, the dam is expected to take 14 years to complete at the cost of about US$8 billion. Its major shareholders are the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, China's Three Gorges Corp and Myanmar's Ministry of Electric Power and International Group of Entrepreneurs.
Saw Moe Myint, a mining consultant for the Myanmar Green Network and a retired general manager of the Mines Ministry, also opposes the proposed dam projects on the river including Mongtong.
He said that the plan to divert Thanlwin's water to other regions may result in serious environmental consequences.
"The dams are located in the vicinity of the Kyauk Kyan earthquake fault line," he said.
"In Mon State, local NGOs have been active in opposing the dam, but have found little support from the country's politicians".
The Salween is estimated to sustain up to 10 million people and thousands of species of plants and fish, including dozens of endangered species. It also at the heart of one of the largest proposed dam networks in the world.
At least 19 projects are planned, underway or completed along the river over an area stretching from the Tibetan Plateau to the Andaman Sea. To date, neither the promised economic benefits or the feared environmental and human consequences have been realised, with the construction of many dams slowed by protests and civil conflicts.
"If the dam construction continues, it will affect not only this region but everywhere along the whole Salween... The people living along the banks, the fishermen, the farmers, it will affect everyone."
Water diversion plan - - Feasibility study ordered for Salween water diversion project in Thailand
The project will draw the water from Nam Yuam, a tributary of Salween River, into the Bhumibol dam in Tak province which has the capacity to store up to 4,000 million cubic metres of water. Construction cost is estimated at about 50 billion baht.
Save The Salween Network Statement
Yangon, February 22, 2016
Plans to build dams on the Salween River, started by the previous military regime, have recently been accelerated by U Thein Sein’s government, which, on February 2, 2016, without informing or consulting Burma’s citizens, signed an agreement with China allowing implementation of 18 out of 29 hydropower dam projects planned by Chinese companies in Burma. This is not only going to create misunderstanding between ethnic peoples and the new government, but will also have impacts on ethnic armed groups and the current peace process.
1. Experts have pointed out that climate changes and natural disasters taking place in Burma can be linked to existing dams.
2. According to research along the Salween by earthquake experts, the building of dams will have seismically disruptive impacts on major fault lines, and should definitely not go ahead.
3. The Mong Ton dam, planned on the Salween River in Shan State, will be the largest hydropower project in Southeast Asia, and will threaten the lives, homes and property of countless communities in Shan, Karenni, Karen and Mon States.
4. The current Salween dam projects are not only violating the human rights and indigenous rights of local people, but are violating the civil rights of Burma’s citizens.
5. The Salween dam projects are fuelling tension and conflict between different ethnic armed groups. Government troops are also using the pretext of providing security for the dams to expand their presence in ethnic areas. This is threatening the peace process and the lives, homes and property of local ethnic peoples.
6. We do not believe in the process of granting the Environmental Compliance Certificate for the dams, as there has been no transparency and no proper consultation with local people in accordance with EIA/SIA rules and procedures, and local people will gain no benefit from the dams.
7. In accordance with the new government’s promise to guarantee ethnic rights and set up a federal democratic system, the Save the Salween Network urges the new government to stop all plans to build dams on the Salween River, as they will have disastrous impacts on the lives of countless ethnic communities in Burma.
Contact persons:
1. Mi Ah Chai 09255784905 (Burmese, Mon)
2. Saw Tha Phoe 09782639714 (Burmese, English)
3. Oattra Aung 09252171819 (Burmese, Karenni)
4. Nang Kham Naung 09428367849 (Burmese, Shan)
5. Ko Thein Zaw 09794316944 (Burmese)
Shan Activists Call on Suu Kyi to Halt Salween Dams
“We, the local ethnic populations, will be the one who suffer the negative consequences of these dams, and it is not likely we will get to enjoy the benefits. These dams will destroy our environment and our farmlands will be flooded,” the Shan activist said.
“[Suu Kyi] promised equal rights between all ethnic groups and the people of Burma, so we hope that she will keep her word. Everything is in her hands — she is the leader of the country, her party is leading the country, so everything is up to her.” 

Wednesday, 25 December 2013

Shan Culture Important Doc[1] by Sai Woon Hseng

Friday, 1 February 2013

66th Anniversary of Shan State National Day

Public By Kor Kham

Shan National Day” or “Shan State Day”?

One problem facing Shans each year when 7 February draws near is whether the day marking the unity between ruling princes and their people against British suzereignty should be called “Shan National Day” as it used to be or “Shan State Day” as renamed by the military junta that came into power in a bloody coup in 1962.

Those in favor of the former name say we should stick to the historical label
Those against it say “Shan National” only means the day is only for Shans and not for non-Shans who together constitute 50% of the population, according to the pre-Independence census; as such “Shan State Day” is preferable to the historical name

So why did they agree to call it “Shan National Day” in the first place, when, out of the then 33 princely non-Shan princes and two of the leading non-Shan princes (Tawngpeng and Hsihseng) were highly educated and well-informed?

The answer lies in both the ambiguity of the term “Nation” and how rulers and people understand the word, then and now.

When you look into the dictionary, two simple distinct meanings are found:
All the people in a country
A tribe or race

At the time when the word “Shan National Day” was coined, it was quite obvious most of the ruling princes thought it applied to all the people in Shan State, then known as Federated Shan States. I remember when I was a kid, people, both Shan and non-Shan, joined together to observe the annually held event.

However, as I grew older, the interpretation began to change. People started saying, “Shan National Day means it is only for Shans, and not us (PaO, Palaung, Wa, Lahu, etc). We should call it Shan State Day, so that all of us are included.”

All those complainants then and now, appear to be unaware that the decision to name the day as “Shan National Day” in 1947 was signed by none other than Hkun Pan Sing, President of the Shan States Council and Palaung prince to boot.

By 1963, a year after the coup, it became clear unless it was called Shan State Day, one was certain to risk being called a rebel or a separatist. Among the resistance ranks, the situation was almost exactly the reverse. One could risk being accused as a junta follower by calling it Shan State Day.

To placate both camps, some have begun to call it “Shan State National Day” which in effect pleases few people.

One of my late uncles explained to me why the term National Day was opposed by the junta. “For many countries, a national day means the day you either declare independence or were granted independence,” he said. “The generals simply don’t want youths like you to get ideas about it.”

He may be right. I’m sure he was.

However, unless a new Shan State Council takes the matter into its hand and reaches a new resolution, I’m afraid we will still be arguing among ourselves how we should properly call the day, every time 7 February is in the offing.

Thursday, 17 January 2013

dhamma talk

Sao Su Kham ( Cut) 1

Sao Su Kham ( Cut) 2

Sao Su Kham ( Cut) 3

Sao Su Kham ( Cut) 4

Sao Su Kham ( Cut) 5

Sao Su Kham ( Cut) 6

Saturday, 13 October 2012

The Brief History of The Shan State and its resistance Day

The brief history of the Shan State and its resistance Day.

By Nam Hio

20 March 2012
The Shan State is a state, 62500 square miles, situated on the plateau, in the northeastern
part of Burma. It is bordered with Kayah (Karenni) state in the south, Thailand
in the south east, Laos in the east, China in the north east and Kachin state in the north.
The Tai/Shan live in the area that is today’s Shan State (Mong Tai) for over a
thousand years. The Shan State has always existed as an independent state throughout
the history, Sao Phas (Princedom) ruled and formed the Shan State as a Federated
State, they ruled their territories and governed their own states independently until
In 18-20 centuries, due to the British colonization and
expansion to South and South-east Asia, the political
situation and fate of the Shan State has changed. In
1815-1818, the British occupied India and annexed
Assam into India. The British troops further its
expansion to Burma. In 1824, 1852 and 1885, the
Burmese resisted for three times against the British
invasions. However, in 1886 the powerful British
defeated the Burmese resistance and annexed the
Burmese Kingdom (including Arakan and Mon states).
Kayah (Karenni) states recognized as Sovereign States.
In the meantime, fighting broke out among the Shan
princes over the disputes of the territories. The
Yawnghwe and Hsipaw princes requested for the
British protection. After that, the British sent its troops
into the Federated Shan State and Shan State become a
protectorate state of the British Empire in 1886.
In 1930s, Burmese nationalists led by Aung San raise
the campaign for independence. Aung San was anti-
British and staunchly anti-imperialist. In March 1940,
he attended the Indian National Congress Assembly in
Ramgarh, India. However, the government issued a
warrant for his arrest due to his attempts to organise a
revolt against the British and he had to flee Burma. He
went first to China, seeking assistance from the government there (China was still
under nationalist government during World War 2), but he was intercepted by the
Japanese military occupiers in Amoy, and was convinced by them to go to Japan
In February 1941, Aung San returned to Burma, with an offer of arms and financial
supports from the Fumimaro Konoe government. He returned briefly to Japan to
receive more military training, along with the first batch of young revolutionaries who
came to be known as the Thirty Comrades. The former capital of Burma, Rangoon
(now Yangon), fell to the Japanese in March 1942 (as part of the Burma Campaign in
World War II). On 1 August 1943, the Japanese declared Burma to be an independent
nation. Aung San was appointed War Minister, and the army was again renamed, this
time as the Burma National Army (BNA). Aung
San became sceptical of Japanese promises of true
independence and of Japan's ability to win the war.
He made plans to organize an uprising in Burma
and made contact with the British authorities in
India, in cooperation with Communist leaders
Thakin Than Tun and Thakin Soe. On 27 March
1945, he led the BNA in a revolt against the
Japanese occupiers and helped the Allies defeat the
During the Second World War, the British promised
to grant independence to her colonies that support
the British war against Japanese invasion.
Independence would be granted by the end of the
war. Many Chin, Kachin, Karen and Shan took the
opportunity and remain loyal to the British and they
fight the Japanese and Burmese nationalists. Many
Sao Phas led their people to help the British in the
war against the Japanese in the Second World War.
The war ended in August 1945 and finally, the
Japanese lose the Second World War. The people of
Shan State started to prepare for independence from
the Britain.
In 1945, the Shan Sao Phas prepared to form the unity among the ethnicities. In 1946,
the Shan Sao Phas invited the Kachin, Chin representative to Panglong, Southern
Shan State. In February 1947, the Shan, Kachin, Chin representative formed Supreme
Council of the United Hill People (SCOUHP). At that time, the Shan Sao Phas wanted
to transform its old prince administrative systems into a democratic system. The Shan
State Council was formed that comprised of 7 Sao Phas and 7 people representatives.
Even after Japanese withdraw from the Shan State, the Shan Sao Phas and its leaders
decided to stay under the British Empire as a dominion state. It is because they
realised that Shan State people were not strong and ready in terms of governing and
political knowledge. However, they would change into the independent country when
are ready. And the British make it clear and promised to hand back to the people of
Shan state.
Meanwhile, Gen. Aung San and the Burmese leader started to persuade the Shan and
other ethnic leaders to join them for gaining independence from British. On 12
February 1947, the Shan Sao Phas, Chin and Kachin leader signed an agreement with
Gen. Aung San and the Burmese representative to form a federal union of Burma and
obtain independence from Britain. The agreement was known as the ‘‘Panglong
The agreement had laid the foundation of the country and the 1948 constitution.
Under Union of Burma’s 1948 Constitution, Chapter 10 (Right of Secession) stated
that: ‘every State has the right to secede from the Union of Burma after 10 years (if
they wish) from the date on which this Constitution comes into operation’.
According to the Panglong agreement, the federal government cannot send its troops
into the State without permission from the state government. At this point, Shan
leaders believed that the Burmese would not send its troops without reason. The
Panglong agreement stated that the ethnic groups’ relation with Burma shall be on a
federal basis with:
• Equal right and status
• Full autonomy for the Shan and other ethnic states
• Financial autonomy vested in the Federated Shan State shall be maintained
• Citizens of the Frontier Areas shall enjoy rights and privileges which are
regarded as fundamental in democratic countries and
• The right to secede from the Federation at any time after the attainment of
Independence, later a period of 10 years was agreed which was included in the
Burma’s Constitution 1948.
These clauses were essential to balance the power between the Burmese (who
dominated the federal government) and the other ethnics.
On 4 January 1948, Shan together with Burma
became independence from Britain. Despite of that,
the Sao Phas were still in power. After the departure
of the British, the Shan leader formed a government
and an assembly. However, on the defence and
security, the Shan leaders totally rely on the central
government and let the Burmese government in
charge of the security.
In 1950, the Kuomintang was defeated by Chinese
Communist government that led by Mao Tse Tung.
The defeated Kuomintang troops fled into the Shan
State. After that the central Burmese government sent
its troops to Shan State with the pretext securing the
border and fighting off the Kuomintang troops.
However, the Burmese Army did not defend the
border nor fight the Kuomintang troops but to seize
the Shan State. They regard the Shan as the number
one enemy that could threaten to the Burmese power.
Since then, the Burmese troops started to abuse,
destroy and oppress the people of Shan State.
In the early of 1956, human rights violations in the
Shan State by the Burmese army were worsening.
That prompted the Shan patriots who love freedom
and justice, started to oppose the Burmese government and they reacted within the
boundary of democratic system. The Sangha Association of Shan State was formed
with goal of fighting for rights of region, culture and monk communities. On 27-28
December 1956, Shan State Organisation also held a conference in Mong Yai,
northern Shan State in which 150 Shan Sao Phas and people representatives attended.
All participants agreed to oppose the actions of Anti Fascist People Freedom League
(AFPFL) and came up with the following decisions:
1. Shan State Organisations strongly opposed the contract that signed between the
Burma central government and Israel that allowed Israel to use 1 million acres of
land in Shan State for agriculture.
2. Shan State must get some profit from Namtu Bawtwin silver mine in Northern
Shan State.
3. Shan State must have the share of Japanese compensation due to the loss of the
people of Shan state in the World War 2.
4. In order to build peace and stability in Shan State, Shan State government would
arrange its own plans.
5. To hold the conference of the people of Shan State and leader as soon as possible.
6. The central government must provide the annual budget to the Shan State.
7. The Union government must cancel the tax on profit that collect in Shan State.
8. Shan State people must have the rights to form political parties and social
9. Shan State would stop its cooperation with the (SCOUHP) temporally and will
resume its participation due to the appropriate time.
10. Shan leaders are not necessary to give up their administrative powers.
11. Based on the constitution, Shan State would secede from the Union after ten
12. Shan State would not join and become a member of (AFPFL).
After that, on 7 February 1957, Shan State people rallied and demanded their right
On 16-19 May 1957, the Shan leaders hold another conference in Mong Yai and
agreed to form an army to protect the Shan State. Beside, they perceived that Burmese
government would not keep its promise to the Panglong Agreement and would not
allow the independence of Shan State. Sao Noi aka Saw Yan Ta, (a native of Mong
Wan and grew up in Bhamo experienced in military during World War 2) was chosen
to form the army.
On May 21 1958, Sao Noi led his 30 comrades with 7 guns and formed a resistance
army and named as Noom Serk Harm (The Young Warriors). The group held the
tradition ceremony of taking an oath and vowed to fight for the
independence at Sa Marn valley in Mong Kyuak, Mong Pan
Township, and Southern Shan State. Later they set up their
headquarters in Pon Kean near Mong Kyuak village.
The news of Sao Noi’s fighting with the Burmese Army spread
throughout the Shan State that prompted the Shan State people
(who had been oppressed by the Burmese Army in ten years) took
up armed and resisted against the Burmese regime throughout the
Shan State. The battles for freedom spread the whole Shan State as
quickly as the wildfire. However, due to the difficulties of
communication and transportation, the resistance movements
became many separate groups instead of forming a united front. In
the meantime, the Burmese Army offered for the peace talk to
different groups.
There were even many resistance groups were formed during the
struggle for freedom, all of Shan patriots have agreed to regard that Sao Noi was the
first Shan leader who resisted the Burmese Army on 21 May 1958. Therefore, 21 May
is commemorated as ‘Shan State People Resistance Day’.
1. Making Enemies ‘War and State Building in Burma’.
4. Documents translated from Burmese by Amnesty International.
5. The 10th Anniversary of Founding of Restoration Council of the Shan State.
7. Whither Shanland by U Htoon Myint (Taunggyi).
8. The Shan State secession Issue by U Htoon Myint (Taunggyi).
9. Human Rights Report by Seng Wan
Sao Noi

Tuesday, 10 July 2012

About Tai(Shan)

Sao Sur Khan Fa
King Sao Sur Khan Fa of Mao Kingdom
The Shan who call themselves the Tai are found primarily the Shan State of Burma. The Burmese word "Shan" (referring to the Tai) is variously spelled Syam, Syaam, and Syan in the inscriptions of the Pagan period (1044-1334) and in old Burmese texts. In modern Burma the Tai people are called Shan, as are various other branches of the Tai people of Shan state in Burma.
The Shan are a branch of the Tai race. Historical accounts maintain that Upper Burma was the place of the Pyu and the Shan before the establishment of the Pagan kingdom by Anawratha (1044-1077). In Yunnan the Mao kingdom of the Shan existed until it was subdued by the Ming court. From that base they often sent forays into Upper Burma and Assam. Later they had Shan colonies in some parts of southern and northern Shan state, Kachin state, and Sagaing Division in Upper Burma, and all these colonies were under the suzerainty of a Mao chief. Eventually the Shans also controlled almost all Upper Burma. This Shan period of Burmese history lasted from about 1300 until 1540. The Shan of Yunnan, however, were subdued by the Chinese after three successive wars (1441-1448). The final destruction of Shan power in Yunnan occurred in 1604 when the Chinese troops swooped down on Mongmao. After the collapse of the Mao kingdom in Yunnan, the power of the Shan in Burma also weakened and the group finally disintegrated into many small Shan principalities. The development of the Shan in Burma depended much upon the political history of Burma which eventually divided the Shan into such groups as:
a. the Khamti Shan (the Tai in the Khamti region of Sagaing division in Upper Burma)
b. the Mao Shan (the Tai in the Mao River valley in northern Shan state)
c. the Tai Leng (the Red Tai in Kachin state)
d. the Gum Shan (the Tai Hkun in the Kengtung district of eastern Shan state)
The Shan (Tai) are spread throughout Burma, in Shan state, Kachin state, and Sagaing division. The states and divisions in Burma were fixed during the British administration period (1885-1948). In the time of the Burmese kings, the Shan (Tai) areas were named "Saint Taing," "Kambawza Taing," "Haripunza Taing," "Khemawara Taing," etc. In the British administration period (1885-1948), Burma was reorganized into states, divisions, and hill tracts. The present Shan state was formed during the British period, becoming the "Federated Shan States" in 1922. The rest of the Shan areas in Burma were put into Sagaing division, Myitkyina, Bhamo, and Putao districts. The geographical barriers, difficulties in communication, and the system of administration since the times of the Burmese kings separated the Shan from each other, resulting in each group developing its own way of culture and tradition. Thus, those Shan who settled in the Khamti region are called Khamti Shan, those in the Mao River valley are Mao Shan, and those in eastern Shan state are the Hkuns.

A Brief History of Tai(Shan)

“Shan” comes from the Burmese rendering of  “Siam” or “Siem” the name by which the ancient Khmer or Cambodians call the Tai or Thai People. The Shan are members of the Tai Speaking Peoples who today live in northeastern India, Burma & the Federated Shan States, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and south & southwestern China. In 1957, Premier Chou-en-lai said that there are over 100 million Tai or Dai Speaking Peoples in the People’s Republic of China.
Historically Shan or Tai Kingdoms & Principalities have stretched from northeast India through Southeast Asia and into south & southwestern China and the Shan today are linguistically and culturally closely related to modern Thailand and Laos.
In the late 19th century the Shan Principalities on the Shan Plateau were annexed by the British following their conquest of the Burmese kingdom of Mandalay and British Burma then consisted of the Shan States, “Burma Proper” and the Frontier Areas.
Administratively, the Shan States as a Protectorate ruled themselves & had autonomy in internal affairs separate from “Burma Proper” which was governed directly by the British Governor in Rangoon – and indeed Banknotes of British Burma were inscribed in English, Shan & Burmese.
After the end of WWII the Shan Princes & Representatives in 1946 convened the First Panglong Conference in the Shan States attended also by Leaders & Representatives of the British Burma Frontier Areas. A second Conference was called in 1947 to which the Burmese came as Observers and it was at this second Conference that General Aung San of the Burmese tabled a proposal to include “Burma Proper” in forming a Union.  In the vote that followed, the Shan narrowly by a margin of 51:49%, voted for the Union of equal partnership and because of this decision take by the Shan, the Chin, Kachin & Karenni also ratified the Panglong Agreement which also specified the Right of Secession – a Right that is also recognized in the 1948 Union of Burma Constitution, Chapter X specifically stating the Shan State’s Right to Secede from the Union of Burma after 10 years.
Following the second Burmese military coup in 1962, the Shan State has lost all its autonomy and is now under Nazi-like occupation of the Burmese SPDC regime. In 2000, 2004 & 2006, Shan Leaders secretly and clandestinely held meetings and canvassed the people of the Se-Viengs or Counties of the Shan lands resulting in 2000 & 2004 in a 48:14 voting for independence and that majority rising to 54:8 or 87% majority for independence in 2006.
On April 17, 2005 President Prince Hso-khan-pha of Yawnghwe, under instructions from the Shan Leadership inside occupied Federated Shan States (consisting of Shan, Palaung, Pa-O, Kokang States and other ethnic communities), made a Declaration of Independence and the Shan Government is now working to fulfill its Mandate for Independence and to deliver humanitarian relief to the victims of Burmese SPDC atrocities and war crimes.